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Alguns Tipos de Memória 


The term memory implies the capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information. The possibility that memory might not be a unitary system was proposed by William JAMES (1898) who suggested two systems which he named primary and secondary memory. Donald HEBB (1949) also proposed a dichotomy, suggesting that the brain might use two separate neural mechanisms with primary or short-term storage being based on electrical activation, while long-term memory reflected the growth of relatively permanent neuronal links between assemblies of cells.

-- Alan Baddeley


Atkinson, R. C., and R. M. Shiffrin. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence, Ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Academic Press, pp. 89 - 195.

Baddeley, A. D. (1966a). Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic and formal similarity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 18: 362 - 365.

Baddeley, A. D. (1966b). The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long-term memory for word sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 18: 302 - 309.

Baddeley, A. D. (1998). Human Memory: Theory and Practice, Revised ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Baddeley, A. D., and G. Hitch. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower, Ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. New York: Academic Press, pp. 47 - 89.

Baddeley, A. D., and E. K. Warrington. (1970). Amnesia and the distinction between long- and short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 9: 176 - 189.

Banaji, M. R., and R. G. Crowder. (1989). The bankruptcy of everyday memory. American Psychologist 44: 1185 - 1193.

Bjork, R. A., and W. B. Whitten. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes. Cognitive Psychology 6: 173 - 189.

Brown, J. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 10: 12 - 21.

Craik, F. I. M., and R. S. Lockhart. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11: 671 - 684.

Craik, F. I. M., and M. J. Watkins. (1973). The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12: 599 - 607.

Gardiner, J. M. (1988). Functional aspects of recollective experience. Memory and Cognition 16: 309 - 313.

Hebb, D. O. (1949). Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley.

James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Melton, A. W. (1963). Implications of short-term memory for a general theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 2: 1 - 21.

Milner, B. (1966). Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill, Eds., Amnesia. London: Butterworths, pp. 109 - 133.

Neisser, U. (1978). Memory: What are the important questions? In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, and R. N. Sykes, Eds., Practical Aspects of Memory. London: Academic Press.

Patterson, K. E., and J. R. Hodges. (1996). Disorders of semantic memory. In A. D. Baddeley, B. A. Wilson, and F. N. Watts, Eds., Handbook of Memory Disorders. Chichester, England: Wiley, pp. 167 - 186.

Peterson, L. R., and M. J. Peterson. (1959). Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58: 193 - 198.

Quillian, M. R. (1969). The teachable language comprehender: A simulation program and theory of language. Communication of the ACM 12: 459 - 476.

Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist 45: 1043 - 1056.

Shallice, T., and E. K. Warrington. (1970). Independent functioning of verbal memory stores: A neuropsychological study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 22: 261 - 273.

Smith, E. E., and J. Jonides. (1995). Working memory in humans: Neuropsychological evidence. In M. Gazzaniga, Ed., The Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1009 - 1020.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson, Eds., Organization of Memory. New York: Academic Press, pp. 381 - 403.

Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist 40: 385 - 398.

Warrington, E. K., and L. Weiskrantz. (1968). New methods of testing long-term retention with special reference to amnesic patients. Nature 217: 972 - 974.

Waugh, N. C., and D. A. Norman. (1965). Primary memory. Psychological Review 72: 89 - 104.

Wilson, B. A., and A. D. Baddeley. (1988). Semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory in a post-meningitic amnesic patient. Brain and Cognition 8: 31 - 46.

Further Readings

Baddeley, A. D. (1999). Essentials of Human Memory. Hove: Psychology Press.

Parkin, A. (1987). Memory and Amnesia: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.

James, William
William James (1842 - 1910) was born in New York City into a cultivated, liberal, financially comfortable and deeply religious middle-class family. It was also a very literary family. His father wrote theological works, his brother Henry became famous as a novelist, and his sister Alice acquired a literary reputation on the posthumous publication of her diaries. As his parents took to traveling extensively in Europe, William James was educated at home and in various parts of Europe by a succession of private tutors and through brief attendance at whatever school was at hand. After an unsuccessful attempt to become a painter in Newport, Rhode Island, James began to study comparative anatomy at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University. After a few years, James moved to the Harvard Medical School, graduating in medicine in 1869.

-- William Lyons


Bird, G. (1986). William James. London: Routledge.

James, W. The Works of William James. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Myers, G. E. (1986). William James: His Life and Thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Perry, R. B. (1935). The Thought and Character of William James, vols. 1 and 2. Boston: Little, Brown.

Taylor, E. (1982). William James on Exceptional Mental States. New York: Charles Scribners Sons .


Hebb, Donald Olding
Donald Olding Hebb (1904 - 1985) was, during his lifetime, an extraordinarily influential figure in the discipline of psychology. His principled opposition to radical BEHAVIORISM and emphasis on understanding what goes on between stimulus and response (perception, LEARNING, thinking) helped clear the way for the cognitive revolution. His view of psychology as a biological science and his neuropsychological cell-assembly proposal rejuvenated interest in physiological psychology. Since his death, Hebb's seminal ideas exert an ever-growing influence on those interested in mind (cognitive science), brain (neuroscience), and how brains implement mind (cognitive neuroscience).

-- Raymond M. Klein


Boring, E. G. (1950). A History of Experimental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Goddard, G. V. (1980). Component properties of the memory machine: Hebb revisited. In P. W. Jusczyk and R. M. Klein, Eds., The Nature of Thought: Essays in Honor of D. O. Hebb. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 231 - 247.

Hebb, D. O. (1942). The effects of early and late brain injury upon test scores, and the nature of normal adult intelligence. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 85: 275 - 292.

Hebb, D. O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. New York: Wiley.

Hebb, D. O. (1959). A neuropsychological theory. In S. Koch, Ed., Psychology: A Study of a Science, vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hunt, J. M. (1979). Psychological development: early experience. Annual Review of Psychology 30: 103 - 143.

McKelvie, S. (1987). Learning and awareness in the Hebb digits task. Journal of General Psychology 114: 75 - 88.

Milner, P. M. (1957). The cell assembly: Mark II. Psychological Review 64: 242 - 252.

Olds, J., and P. M. Milner. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 47: 419 - 427.

Pritchard, R. M., W. Heron, and D. O. Hebb. (1960). Visual perception approached by the method of stabilized images. Canadian Journal of Psychology 14: 67 - 77.

Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.

Zubek, P. (1969). Sensory Deprivation: 15 Years of Research. New York: Meredith.

Further Readings

Glickman, S. (1996). Donald Olding Hebb: Returning the nervous system to psychology. In G. Kimble, C. Boneau, and M. Wertheimer, Eds., Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology, vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hebb, D. O. (1980). D. O. Hebb. In G. Lindzey, Ed., A History of Psychology in Autobiography, vol. 8. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Hebb, D. O. (1953). Heredity and environment in mammalian behavior. British Journal of Animal Behavior 1: 43 - 47.

Hebb, D. O. (1958). A Textbook of Psychology. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Hebb, D. O. (1955). Drives and the CNS (conceptual nervous system). Psychological Review 62: 243 - 254.

Hebb, D. O. (1980). Essay on Mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Klein, R. M. (1980). D. O. Hebb: An appreciation. In P. W. Jusczyk and R. M. Klein, Eds., The nature of Thought: Essays in Honour of D. O. Hebb. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, pp. 1 - 18.

Milner, P. M. (1986). The mind and Donald O. Hebb. Scientific American 268(1): 124 - 129.

Ebbinghaus, Hermann

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850 - 1909) was the first psychologist to apply experimental methods to the study of human MEMORY. His groundbreaking book summarizing his experimental work, Über das Gedächtnis, was published in 1885. The English translation appeared in 1913 as Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology and is still in print and well worth reading today.

-- Henry L. Roediger


Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. Trans. H. A. Ruber and C. E. Bussenius. New York: Dover. Original work published 1885.

Fechner, G. (1860/1966). Elements of Psychophysics. Vol. 1. H. E. Adler, D. H. Howes, and E. G. Boring, Eds. and Trans. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

James, W. (1890). Principles of Psychology. New York: Holt.

Postman, L. (1968). Hermann Ebbinghaus. American Psychologist 23: 149 - 157.

Roediger, H. L. (1985). Remembering Ebbinghaus. Contemporary Psychology 30: 519 - 523.

Tulving, E. (1992). Ebbinghaus, Hermann. In L. R. Squire, Ed., Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory. New York: Macmillan.



Working Memory

Working memory is the cognitive system that allows us to keep active a limited amount of information (roughly, 7 ± 2 items) for a brief period of time (roughly, a few seconds). This system has been a major research topic since the advent of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, and was earlier referred to as " short-term memory." It was then thought to have two functions: storing material that we have to recall in a few seconds, as when we rehearse a phone number until we dial it, and providing a gateway to long-term memory (e.g., Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968). While cognitive scientists continue to believe in the simple storage purpose, their belief in the gateway function has been somewhat undermined by the existence of neurological patients who are impaired in short-term memory tasks, but perform normally on long-term memory tasks (see, e.g., Shallice 1988). Rather, cognitive scientists now assume that the major function of the system in question is to temporarily store the outcomes of intermediate computations when PROBLEM SOLVING, and to perform further computations on these temporary outcomes (e.g., Baddeley 1986). For example, when mentally multiplying two-digit numbers like 38 19, we may first compute and store the partial product 8 9 = 72, later use this partial product in further computations, and subsequently drop it when it is no longer needed. Given this role, the system in question has been renamed "working memory," and is considered critical not only for analyzing MEMORY, but for understanding thought itself.

-- Edward E. Smith


Anderson, J. R. (1983). The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Atkinson, R. C., and R. M. Shiffrin. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence, and J. T. Spence, Eds., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.

Awh, E., and J. Jonides. (1998). Spatial selective attention and spatial working memory. In R. Parasuraman, Ed., The Attentive Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 353 - 380.

Awh, E., J. Jonides, E. E. Smith, E. H. Schumacher, R. A. Koeppe, and S. Katz. (1996). Dissociation of storage and rehearsal in verbal working memory: Evidence from PET. Psychological Science 7: 25 - 31.

Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baddeley, A. D., and G. J. Hitch. (1974). Working memory. In G. Bower, Ed., Recent Advances in Learning and Motivation, vol. 8. New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. D., N. Thompson, and M. Buchanan. (1975). Word length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14: 575 - 589.

Basso, A. H., H. Spinnler, G. Vallar, and E. Zanobia. (1982). Left hemisphere damage and selective impairment of auditory verbal short-term memory: A case study. Neuropsychologica 20: 263 - 274.

Brooks, L. R. (1968). Spatial and verbal components of the act of recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology 22: 349 - 368.

Carpenter, P. A., M. A. Just, and P. Shell. (1990). What one intelligence test measures: A theoretical account of the processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Psychological Review 97: 404 - 431.

Conrad, R. (1970). Short-term memory processes in the deaf. British Journal of Psychology 61: 179 - 195.

Gilhooly, K. J., R. H. Logie, N. E. Wetherick, and V. Wynn. (1993). Working memory and strategies in syllogistic- reasoning tasks. Memory and Cognition 21: 115 - 124.

Just, M. A., and P. A. Carpenter. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review 99: 122 - 149.

McCarthy, R. A., and E. K. Warrington. (1990). Cognitive Neuro-psychology: A Clinical Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press.

Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Paulesu, E., C. D. Frith, and R. S. J. Frackowiak. (1993). The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory. Nature 362: 342 - 344.

Prabhakaran, V., J. A. L. Smith, J. E. Desmond, G. H. Glover, and J. D. E. Gabrieli. (1997). Neural substrates of fluid reasoning: An fMRI study of neocortical activation during performance of the Ravens Progressive Matrices Test. Cognitive Psychology 33: 43 - 63.

Shallice, T. (1988). From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, E. E., J. Jonides, and R. A. Koeppe. (1996). Dissociating verbal and spatial working memory using PET. Cerebral Cortex 6: 11 - 20.

Smith, E. E., A. Patalano, and J. Jonides. (1998). Alternative strategies of categorization. Cognition 65: 167 - 196.

Further Readings

Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. Science 255: 556 - 559.

Daneman, M., and P. A. Carpenter. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19: 450 - 466.

Hitch, G. J. (1978). The role of short-term working memory in mental arithmetic. Cognitive Psychology 10: 302 - 323.

Jonides, J. (1995). Working memory and thinking. In E. E. Smith and D. Osherson, Eds., Invitation to Cognitive Science, vol. 3: Thinking. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jonides, J., P. Reuter-Lorenz, E. E. Smith, E. Awh, L. Barnes, M. Drain, J. Glass, E. Lauber, A. Patalano, and E. Schumacher. (1996). Verbal and spatial working memory. In D. L. Medin, Ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation 35: 43 - 88.

Just, M. A., P. A. Carpenter, and T. A. Keller. (1996). The capacity theory of comprehension: New frontiers of evidence and arguments. Psychological Review 103: 773 - 780.

Kyllonen, P. C., and R. E. Christal. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working memory capacity?! Intelligence 14: 389 - 433.

Longoni, A. M., J. T. Richardson, and A. Aiello. (1993). Articulating rehearsal and phonological storage in working memory. Memory and Cognition 21: 11 - 22.

Martin, R. C. (1993). Short-term memory and sentence processing: Evidence from neuro-psychology. Memory and Language 21: 176 - 183.

Salthouse, T. A. (1990). Working memory as a processing resource in cognitive ageing. Developmental Review 10: 101 - 124.

Smith, E. E., and J. Jonides. (1997). Working memory: A view from neuroimaging. Cognitive Psychology 33: 5 - 42.

Vallar G., and T. Shallice, Eds.. (1990). Neuropsychological Impairments of Short-Term Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Waters, G. S., and D. Caplan. (1996). The capacity theory of sentence comprehension: Critique of Just and Carpenter (1992). Psychological Review 103: 761 - 772.



Episodic vs. Semantic Memory

Episodic memory is a recently evolved, late developing, past-oriented memory system, probably unique to humans, that allows remembering of previous experiences as experienced. William JAMES (1890) discussed it as simply "memory." The advent of many different forms of memory since James's time has made adjectival modifications of the term necessary. Semantic memory is the closest relative of episodic memory in the family of memory systems. It allows humans and nonhuman animals to acquire and use knowledge about their world. Although humans habitually express and exchange their knowledge through language, language is not necessary for either remembering past experiences or knowing facts about the world.

-- Endel Tulving


Buckner, R. (1996). Beyond HERA: Contributions of specific prefrontal brain areas to long-term memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 3: 149 - 158.

Buckner, R., and E. Tulving. (1995). Neuroimaging studies of memory: Theory and recent PET results. In F. Boller and J. Grafman, Eds., Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol. 10. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 439 - 466.

Cabeza, R., and L. Nyberg. (1997). Imaging cognition: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Curran, H. V., J. M. Gardiner, R. Java, and D. Allen. (1993). Effects of lorazepam upon recollective experience in recognition memory. Psychopharmacology 110: 374 - 378.

Düzel, E., A. P. Yonelinas, H-J. Heinze, G. R. Mangun, and E. Tulving. (1997). Event-related brain potential correlates of two states of conscious awareness in memory. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 94: 5973 - 5978.

Fletcher, P. C., C. D. Frith, and M. D. Rugg. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory. Trends in Neurosciences 20: 213 - 218.

Gardiner, J. M., and R. Java. (1993). Recognizing and remembering. In A. F. Collins, S. E. Gathercole, M. A. Conway, and P. E. Morris, Eds., Theories of Memory. Hove, England: Erlbaum.

Haxby, J. V., L. G. Ungerleider, B. Horwitz, J. M. Maisog, S. L. Rapoport, and C. L. Grady. (1996). Face encoding and recognition in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93: 922 - 927.

Hayman, C. A. G., C. A. Macdonald, and E. Tulving. (1993). The role of repetition and associative interference in new semantic learning in amnesia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 5: 375 - 389.

James, W. (1890). Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover.

Klimesch, W., H. Schimke, and J. Schwaiger. (1994). Episodic and semantic memory: An analysis in the EEG theta and alpha band. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 91: 428 - 441.

Markowitsch, H. J. (1995). Which brain regions are critically involved in the retrieval of old episodic memory. Brain Research Reviews 21: 117 - 127.

Mitchell, D. B. (1989). How many memory systems? Evidence from aging. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 15: 31 - 49.

Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science 4: 7 - 14.

Nilsson, L. G., L. Bäckman, K. Erngrund, L. Nyberg, R. Adolfsson, G. Bucht, S. Karlsson, M. Widing, and B. Winblad. (1997). The Betula prospective cohort study: Memory, health, and aging. Aging and Cognition 1: 1 - 36.

Nyberg, L., and E. Tulving. (1996). Classifying human long-term memory: Evidence from converging dissociations. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 8: 163 - 183.

Nyberg, L., R. Cabeza, and E. Tulving. (1996). PET studies of encoding and retrieval: The HERA model. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 3: 135 - 148.

Nyberg, L., A. R. McIntosh, and E. Tulving. (1997). Functional brain imaging of episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Molecular Medicine 76: 48 - 53.

Perner, J., and T. Ruffman. (1995). Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: Developmental evidence and a theory of childhood amnesia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 59: 516 - 548.

Shallice, T., P. Fletcher, C. D. Frith, P. Grasby, R. S. J. Fracowiak, and R. J. Dolan. (1994). Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory. Nature 368: 633 - 635.

Shimamura, A. P., and L. R. Squire. (1987). A neuropsychological study of fact memory and source amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13: 464 - 473.

Tulving, E., S. Kapur, F. I. M. Craik, M. Moscovitch, and S. Houle. (1994). Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91: 2016 - 2020.

Tulving, E. (1995). Organization of memory: Quo vadis? In M. S. Gazzaniga, Ed., The Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 839 - 847.

Vargha-Khadem, F., D. G. Gadian, K. E. Watkins, A. Connelly, W. Van Paesschen, and M. Mishkin. (1997). Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science 277: 376 - 380.

Wheeler, M. A., D. T. Stuss, and E. Tulving. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin 121: 331 - 354.

Further Readings

Dalla Barba, G., M. C. Mantovan, E. Ferruzza, and G. Denes. (1997). Remembering and knowing the past: A case study of isolated retrograde amnesia. Cortex 33: 143 - 154.

Horner, M. D. (1990). Psychobiological evidence for the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. Neuropsychology Review 1: 281 - 321.

Humphreys, M. S., J. D. Bain, and R. Pike. (1989). Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic, and procedural tasks. Psychological Review 96: 208 - 233.

Humphreys, M. S., J. Wiles, and S. Dennis. (1994). Toward a theory of human memory: Data structures and access processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 655 - 692.

Huron, C., J. M. Danion, F. Giacomoni, D. Grange, P. Robert, and L. Rizzo. (1995). Impairment of recognition memory with, but not without, conscious recollection in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 152: 1737 - 1742.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (1984). A fact is a fact is a fact. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7: 243 - 244.

Kitchner, E.G., J. R. Hodges, and R. McCarthy. (1998). Acquisition of post-morbid vocabulary and semantic facts in the absence of episodic memory. Brain 121: 1313 - 1327.

Mandler, G. (1987). Memory: Conscious and unconscious. In P. R. Solomon, G. R. Goethals, C. M. Kelley, and B. R. Stephens, Eds., Memory -- An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Springer, p. 42.

McKoon, G., R. Ratcliff, and G. S. Dell. (1985). A critical evaluation of the semantic-episodic distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 12: 295 - 306.

Roediger, H. L., M. S. Weldon, and B. H. Challis. (1989). Explaining dissociations between implicit and explicit measures of retention: A processing account. In H. L. Roediger and F. I. M. Craik, Eds., Varieties of Memory and Consciousness: Essays in Honour of Endel Tulving. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, pp. 3 - 41.

Roediger, H. L., S. Rajaram, and K. Srinivas. (1990). Specifying criteria for postulating memory systems. Conference of the National Institute of Mental Health et al: The development and neural bases of higher cognitive functions. (1989, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608: 572 - 595.

Schacter, D. L., and E. Tulving. (1994). What are the memory systems of 1994? In D. L. Schacter and E. Tulving, Eds., Memory Systems 1994. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1 - 38.

Squire, L. R. (1993). Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review 99: 195 - 231.

Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist 40: 385 - 398.

Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology 26: 1 - 12.

Tulving, E. (1991). Concepts of human memory. In L. Squire, G. Lynch, N. M. Weinberger, and J. L. McGaugh, Eds., Memory: Organization and Locus of Change. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 3 - 32.

Tulving, E. (1993). What is episodic memory? Current Perspectives in Psychological Science 2: 67 - 70.

Tulving, E. (1998). Brain/mind correlates of memory. In M. Sa bourin, M. Robert, and F. I. M. Craik, Eds., Advances in Psychological Science, vol. 2: Biological and cognitive aspects. Hove, England: Psychology Press .


Implicit vs. Explicit Memory

Psychological studies of human MEMORY have traditionally been concerned with conscious recollection or explicit memory for specific facts and episodes. During recent years, there has been growing interest in a nonconscious form of memory, referred to as implicit memory (Graf and Schacter 1985; Schacter 1987), that does not require explicit recollection for specific episodes. Numerous experimental investigations have revealed dramatic differences between implicit and explicit memory, which have had a major impact on psychological theories of the processes and systems involved in human memory (cf. Roediger 1990; Schacter and Tulving 1994; Ratcliff and McKoon 1997).

-- Daniel L. Schacter


Buckner, R. L., S. E. Petersen, J. G. Ojemann, F. M. Miezin, L. R. Squire, and M. E. Raichle. (1995). Functional anatomical studies of explicit and implicit memory retrieval tasks. Journal of Neuroscience 15: 12 - 29.

Cabeza, R., and L. Nyberg. (1997). Imaging cognition: an empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9: 1 - 26.

Church, B. A., and D. L. Schacter. (1994). Perceptual specificity of auditory priming: implicit memory for voice intonation and fundamental frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20: 521 - 533.

Curran, T., D. L. Schacter, and G. Bessenoff. (1996). Visual specificity effects on word stem completion: beyond transfer appropriate processing? Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 50: 22 - 33.

Gabrieli, J. D. E., D. A. Fleischman, M. M. Keane, S. L. Reminger, and F. Morrell. (1995). Double dissociation between memory systems underlying explicit and implicit memory in the human brain. Psychological Science 6: 76 - 82.

Graf, P., and L. Ryan. (1990). Transfer-appropriate processing for implicit and explicit memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 978 - 992.

Graf, P., and D. L. Schacter. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal subjects and amnesic patients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 11: 501 - 518.

Hamman, S. B. (1990). Level-of-processing effects in conceptually driven implicit tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 970 - 977.

Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30: 513 - 541.

Karni, A., G. Meyer, P. Jezzard, M. M. Adams, R. Turner, and L. G. Ungerleider. (1995). Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning. Nature 377: 155 - 158.

Nyberg, L., A. R. McIntosh, S. Houle, L -G. Nilsson, and E. Tulving. (1996). Activation of medial temporal structures during episodic memory retrieval. Nature 380: 715 - 717.

Ratcliff, R., and G. McKoon. (1997). A counter model for implicit priming in perceptual word identification. Psychological Review 104: 319 - 343.

Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: retention without remembering. American Psychologist 45: 1043 - 1056.

Roediger, H. L., and K. B. McDermott. (1993). Implicit memory in normal human subjects. In H. Spinnler and F. Boller, Eds., Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol. 8. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 63 - 131.

Salmon, D. P., and N. Butters. (1995). Neurobiology of skill and habit learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5: 184 - 190.

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